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Publications significatives

  • A general framework for new product development projects

    Références :
    Marc Zolghadri, Philippe Girard, Claude Baron et Michel Aldanondo. « A general framework for new product development projects ». In : International Journal of Technology Management 55.3 (2011). P. 250--262. ISSN : 0267-5730. DOI : 10.1504/IJTM.2011.041951.
    Firms look for procuring a sustainable advantage over their competitors. Therefore, they should be both operationally and strategically efficient. However, as firms work with other companies, they are under threats of misunderstanding, inefficiency, difficult synchronisations, etc. These threats will be transformed into real business traps. In this paper, authors propose a global framework which focuses on collaborative new product development (NPD) projects. The ultimate goal is to minimise harmful potential consequences of collaborations. This framework emphasises critical characteristics of any collaboration among partners. It helps users to have a clearer understanding of the overall environment of such projects. This understanding leads not only managers towards a better definition of their strategy but also guides them to acquire a more resourceful operational efficiency.
    Keywords: business efficiency, Design, new product development framework, npd, supply chain, uncertainties
  • Multi-criteria performance analysis for decision making in project management

    Références :
    Guillaume Marques, Didier Gourc et Matthieu Lauras. « Multi-criteria performance analysis for decision making in project management ». In : International Journal of Project Management 29.8 (déc. 2011). P. 1057--1069. ISSN : 0263-7863. DOI : 10.1016/j.ijproman.2010.10.002.
    This study is focused on decision support in the context of product and service development projects. Decision support requires the capacity to characterize the current state of the project (performance evaluation) and the decision-maker's point of view. However, the different projects' stakeholders do not have the same needs in terms of performance evaluation to support their decision-making processes. Furthermore, in some cases controlling project performance using the elementary components of the Iron Triangle (Cost, Time and Quality) alone seems inefficient. This paper proposes a new multi-dimensional Project Performance Measurement System that would enable managers to deal with the volume of data. The proposition integrates the only character of each project (tasks, objectives, decision-makers personality and competences), several good practices in terms of universal project management dimensions on the one hand, and in terms of performance analysis on the other hand. Then, we show how an aggregation tool called MACBETH is used to analyze the performance measures according to project managers' own performance interests. A case study illustrates the proposed system. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. and IPMA. All rights reserved.
    Keywords: Decision support systems, efficiency, macbeth, model, Multiple criteria analysis, Performance measurement system, Project management, Project performance, system
  • A collaborative demand forecasting process with event-based fuzzy judgements

    Références :
    Naoufel Cheikhrouhou, François Marmier, Omar Ayadi et Philippe Wieser. « A collaborative demand forecasting process with event-based fuzzy judgements ». In : Computers & Industrial Engineering 61.2 (sept. 2011). P. 409--421. ISSN : 0360-8352. DOI : 10.1016/j.cie.2011.07.002.
    Mathematical forecasting approaches can lead to reliable demand forecast in some environments by extrapolating regular patterns in time-series. However, unpredictable events that do not appear in historical data can reduce the usefulness of mathematical forecasts for demand planning purposes. Since forecasters have partial knowledge of the context and of future events, grouping and structuring the fragmented implicit knowledge, in order to be easily and fully integrated in final demand forecasts is the objective of this work. This paper presents a judgemental collaborative approach for demand forecasting in which the mathematical forecasts, considered as the basis, are adjusted by the structured and combined knowledge from different forecasters. The approach is based on the identification and classification of four types of particular events. Factors corresponding to these events are evaluated through a fuzzy inference system to ensure the coherence of the results. To validate the approach, two case studies were developed with forecasters from a plastic bag manufacturer and a distributor belonging to the food retailing industry. The results show that by structuring and combining the judgements of different forecasters to identify and assess future events, companies can experience a high improvement in demand forecast accuracy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Keywords: Collaborative forecasting, Demand planning, Fuzzy logic, Judgement, Time series
  • An enterprise modelling approach for better optimisation modelling: application to the humanitarian relief chain coordination problem

    Références :
    Humanitarian supply chains (HSC) can be considered a new research area. The number of applied scientific publications has considerably increased over the past 15 years. About half of this research work uses quantitative techniques as optimisation decision-support systems. But due to the recentness of this academic area, researchers are finding it difficult to develop accurate, and above all, reliable mathematical models to support their steps towards improvement. This is particularly true concerning the crucial problems of coordination in HSCs. This paper tackles the issue by developing an original quantitative modelling support method. Based on enterprise modelling methodologies, we propose a business process modelling approach that helps in understanding, analysing, evaluating and then developing the formal expression of an HSC. Such a model, therefore, clearly has an added value for practitioners and should enable relevant quantitative models to be produced. Finally, an application on the emergency response processes of the International Federation of Red Cross is detailed in order to validate the relevance and the applicability of our proposal. This experiment allows all the variables and parameters that should be useful for improving the efficiency of the network to be identified.
    Keywords: Coordination, disaster relief, Enterprise modelling, Humanitarian supply chains, logistics, management, Optimisation modelling, or/ms, Relief chains
  • A model to define and assess the agility of supply chains: building on humanitarian experience

    Références :
    Aurélie Charles, Matthieu Lauras et Luk Van Wassenhove. « A model to define and assess the agility of supply chains: building on humanitarian experience ». In : International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management 40.8 (2010). P. 722--741. ISSN : 0960-0035. DOI : 10.1108/09600031011079355.
    Purpose - By constantly working in environments with high degree of uncertainty, humanitarian organizations end up becoming specialists in the implementation of agile systems. Their counterparts in profit-making organizations have a lot to learn from them in this domain. Volatility of demand, imbalance between supply and demand and disruptions are all factors that affect commercial supply chains and call for a high level of agility. The aims of this paper are twofold: first, to clearly define the concept of supply chain agility, and second, to build a model for assessing the level of agility of a supply chain. Design/methodology/approach - Three approaches are used in this research: literature review, case study and symbolic modeling. Findings - The paper developed first, a framework for defining supply chain agility and second, a model for assessing and improving the capabilities of humanitarian and commercial supply chains in terms of agility, based on an analysis of humanitarian approaches. Research limitations/implications - The model has been developed thanks to inputs from humanitarian practitioners and feedbacks from academics. The practical application to various humanitarian relief operations and commercial supply chains is yet to be done. Originality/value - This paper contributes significantly to clarifying the notion of supply chain agility. It also provides a consistent, robust and reproducible method of assessing supply chain agility, which seems appropriate for both humanitarian and business sectors. Finally, it is complementary to existant research on humanitarian logistics. It shows that though humanitarian professionals have a lot to learn from the private sector, the reverse is also true.
    Keywords: aid, Aid agencies, capabilities, definition, flexibility, Flexible organizations, modelling, supply chain management
  • A review of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI): from concept to processes

    Références :
    Guillaume Marques, Caroline Thierry, Jacques Lamothe et Didier Gourc. « A review of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI): from concept to processes ». In : Production Planning & Control 21.6 (2010). P. 547--561. ISSN : 0953-7287. DOI : 10.1080/09537287.2010.488937.
    In the modern supplier-customer relationship, Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) is used to monitor the customer's inventory replenishment. Despite the large amount of literature on the subject, it is difficult to clearly define VMI and the main associated processes. Beyond the short-term pull system inventory replenishment often studied in academic works, partners have to share their vision of the demand, their requirements and their constraints in order to fix shared objectives for the medium/long-term. In other words, the integration of VMI implies consequences for the collaborative process that links each partner's different planning processes. In this article we propose a literature review of VMI. Based on the conceptual elements extracted from this analysis, we suggest a VMI macro-process that summarises both operational and collaborative elements of VMI.
    Keywords: collaboration, determinants, impact, information, model, operating parameters, optimization, replenishment, Risk, supply chain, supply chain management, system, Vendor Managed Inventory
  • Structuring and integrating human knowledge in demand forecasting: a judgemental adjustment approach

    Références :
    François Marmier et Naoufel Cheikhrouhou. « Structuring and integrating human knowledge in demand forecasting: a judgemental adjustment approach ». In : Production Planning & Control 21.4 (2010). P. 399--412. ISSN : 0953-7287. DOI : 10.1080/09537280903454149.
    Demand forecasting consists of using data of the past demand to obtain an approximation of the future demand. Mathematical approaches can lead to reliable forecasts in deterministic context through extrapolating regular patterns in time-series. However, unpredictable events that do not appear in the historical data can make the forecasts obsolete. Since forecasters have a partial knowledge of the context and of the future events (such as strikes, promotions) with some probability, the idea presented in this work is on structuring the implicit and the explicit knowledge in order to easily and fully integrate it in final forecasts. This article presents a judgemental-based approach in forecasting where mathematical forecasts are considered as a basis and the structured knowledge of the experts is provided to adjust the initial forecasts. This is achieved using the identification and classification of four factors characterising events that could not be considered in the initial forecasts. Validation of the approach is provided with two case studies developed with forecasters from a plastic bag manufacturer and a distributor acting in the food market. The results show that structuring the expert knowledge through the identification of factor-related events leads to high improvements of forecast accuracy.
    Keywords: Demand planning, forecasting, information, judgemental factors, judgemental forecasting, time-series
  • Hybridation of Bayesian networks and evolutionary algorithms for multi-objective optimization in an integrated product design and project management context

    Références :
    Paul Pitiot, Thierry Coudert, Laurent Geneste et Claude Baron. « Hybridation of Bayesian networks and evolutionary algorithms for multi-objective optimization in an integrated product design and project management context ». In : Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 23.5 (août 2010). P. 830--843. ISSN : 0952-1976. DOI : 10.1016/j.engappai.2010.01.019.
    A better integration of preliminary product design and project management processes at early steps of system design is nowadays a key industrial issue. Therefore, the aim is to make firms evolve from classical sequential approach (first product design the project design and management) to new integrated approaches. In this paper, a model for integrated product/project optimization is first proposed which allows taking into account simultaneously decisions coming from the product and project managers. However, the resulting model has an important underlying complexity, and a multi-objective optimization technique is required to provide managers with appropriate scenarios in a reasonable amount of time. The proposed approach is based on an original evolutionary algorithm called evolutionary algorithm oriented by knowledge (EAOK). This algorithm is based on the interaction between an adapted evolutionary algorithm and a model of knowledge (MoK) used for giving relevant orientations during the search process. The evolutionary operators of the EA are modified in order to take into account these orientations. The MoK is based on the Bayesian Network formalism and is built both from expert knowledge and from individuals generated by the EA. A learning process permits to update probabilities of the BN from a set of selected individuals. At each cycle of the EA, probabilities contained into the MoK are used to give some bias to the new evolutionary operators. This method ensures both a faster and effective optimization, but it also provides the decision maker with a graphic and interactive model of knowledge linked to the studied project. An experimental platform has been developed to experiment the algorithm and a large campaign of tests permits to compare different strategies as well as the benefits of this novel approach in comparison with a classical EA. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Keywords: Bayesian network, evolutionary algorithm, Experience feedback, Learning, manufacturing systems, Product preliminary design, Project management
  • Knowledge-based system for collaborative process specification

    Références :
    Vatcharaphun Rajsiri, Jean-Pierre Lorré, Frédérick Bénaben et Hervé Pingaud. « Knowledge-based system for collaborative process specification ». In : Computers in Industry 61.2 (févr. 2010). P. 161--175. ISSN : 0166-3615. DOI : 10.1016/j.compind.2009.10.012.
    This paper presents an ontology-based approach for the design of a collaborative business process model (CBP). This CBP is considered as a specification of needs in order to build a collaboration information system (CIS) for a network of organizations. The study is a part of a model-driven engineering approach of the CIS in a specific enterprise interoperability framework that will be summarised. An adaptation of the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) is used to represent the CBP model. We develop a knowledge-based system (KbS) which is composed of three main parts: knowledge gathering, knowledge representation and reasoning, and collaborative business process modelling. The first part starts from a high abstraction level where knowledge from business partners is captured. A collaboration ontology is defined in order to provide a structure to store and use the knowledge captured. In parallel, we try to reuse generic existing knowledge about business processes from the MIT Process Handbook repository. This results in a collaboration process ontology that is also described. A set of rules is defined in order to extract knowledge about fragments of the CBP model from the two previous ontologies. These fragments are finally assembled in the third part of the KbS. A prototype of the KbS has been developed in order to implement and support this approach. The prototype is a computer-aided design tool of the CBP. In this paper, we will present the theoretical aspects of each part of this KbS as well as the tools that we developed and used in order to support its functionalities. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Keywords: Collaborative process, Deduction rules, Interoperability of information systems, Model-driven architecture, Ontology
  • Towards a multi-dimensional project Performance Measurement System

    Références :
    Matthieu Lauras, Guillaume Marques et Didier Gourc. « Towards a multi-dimensional project Performance Measurement System ». In : Decision Support Systems 48.2 (janv. 2010). P. 342--353. ISSN : 0167-9236. DOI : 10.1016/j.dss.2009.09.002.
    This paper discusses the difficulty of controlling a complex project caused by the great number of performance indicators. The problem studied is how to allow project managers to better control the performance of their projects. From a literature review we noted several critical aspects to this problem: there are many dimensions for evaluating project performance (cost, time, quality, risk, etc.); performance factors should be able to be relevantly aggregated for controlling the project, but no formalized tool exists to do this. We suggest a method to facilitate project performance analysis via a multi-criteria approach. The method focuses on three particular axes for the analysis of project performance: project task, performance indicator categories, and a breakdown of the performance triptych (Effectiveness. Efficiency, Relevance). Finally, the MACBETH method is used to aggregate performance expressions. An application case study examining a real project management situation is included to illustrate the implementation. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Keywords: decision-support, Decision support systems, Design, efficiency, macbeth, model, Multiple criteria analysis, Performance measurement system, Project management, Project performance

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